Income-Driven Repayment Plans: Everything You Need to Know

Navigating the complex landscape of student loans can be overwhelming. One option that many borrowers find beneficial is an Income-Driven Repayment (IDR) plan.

Everything You Need to Know

This article delves into the intricacies of IDR plans, helping you understand if it’s the right choice for managing your student loan debt.

What Are Income-Driven Repayment Plans?

Income-Driven Repayment plans are federal student loan repayment options that base your monthly payment on your discretionary income. These plans aim to make your monthly payments more manageable by adjusting them according to your income and family size.

Types of Income-Driven Repayment Plans

There are four main types of IDR plans:

1. Revised Pay As You Earn (REPAYE)

REPAYE caps your monthly payments at 10% of your discretionary income. This plan is available to Direct Loan borrowers, regardless of when you took out your loans.

2. Pay As You Earn (PAYE)

PAYE also limits your monthly payments to 10% of your discretionary income but is available only to borrowers who were new borrowers on or after October 1, 2007, and received a disbursement of a Direct Loan on or after October 1, 2011.

3. Income-Based Repayment (IBR)

IBR sets your monthly payments at either 10% or 15% of your discretionary income, depending on when you took out your loans. This plan is available to both Direct Loan and FFEL Program borrowers.

4. Income-Contingent Repayment (ICR)

ICR calculates your monthly payments based on 20% of your discretionary income or what you would pay on a 12-year fixed payment plan, whichever is less. This plan is available to Direct Loan borrowers.

Who Can Apply for IDR Plans?

Most federal student loan borrowers are eligible for at least one type of Income-Driven Repayment plan. However, private student loans do not qualify for IDR plans.

How to Qualify for IDR Plans?

To qualify for an IDR plan, you typically need to provide documentation of your income and family size. Your servicer will then determine your eligibility and calculate your monthly payment based on this information.

Lower Monthly Payments

One of the main advantages of IDR plans is the potential for lower monthly payments. This can free up cash flow for other essential expenses.

Loan Forgiveness

After making payments for 20 to 25 years, depending on the plan, any remaining balance may be forgiven. However, this forgiven amount may be considered taxable income.


IDR plans offer flexibility by adjusting your payments as your income changes. If your income decreases, your payments may be reduced accordingly.

Extended Repayment Period

While IDR plans can lower your monthly payments, they may also extend your repayment period, resulting in more interest paid over time.

Tax Implications

The forgiven amount at the end of the repayment term may be considered taxable income, potentially leading to a significant tax bill.

Accrued Interest

If your monthly payments do not cover the interest accruing on your loans, it may capitalize, increasing the total amount you owe.

Step-by-Step Guide to Applying

  1. Contact Your Loan Servicer: Reach out to your loan servicer to discuss your options and determine which IDR plan is right for you.
  2. Gather Documentation: Prepare your income and family size documentation to provide to your servicer.
  3. Submit Application: Complete the IDR application and submit it along with the required documentation.
  4. Review Plan Details: Once approved, review the terms of your IDR plan, including your new monthly payment amount and repayment term.


Income-Driven Repayment plans offer a viable solution for federal student loan borrowers struggling to manage their monthly payments. By adjusting your payments based on your income, these plans can make your student loan debt more manageable. However, it’s essential to weigh the benefits and drawbacks carefully before deciding if an IDR plan is right for you. If you’re considering an IDR plan, consult with your loan servicer to explore your options and make an informed decision.

Leave a Comment